JavaScript Compilation With Melange

Introduction

Melange compiles OCaml to JavaScript. It produces one JavaScript file per OCaml module. Melange can be installed with opam:

$ opam install melange

Dune can build projects using Melange, and it allows the user to produce JavaScript files by defining a melange.emit stanza. Dune libraries can be used with Melange by adding melange to (modes ...) in the library stanza.

Melange support is still experimental in Dune and needs to be enabled in the dune-project file:

(using melange 0.1)

Once that’s in place, you can use the Melange mode in library stanzas melange.emit stanzas.

Simple Project

Let’s start by looking at a simple project with Melange and Dune. Subsequent sections explain the different concepts used here in further detail.

First, make sure that the dune-project file specifies at least version 3.8 of the Dune language, and the Melange extension is enabled:

(lang dune 3.14)
(using melange 0.1)

Next, write a dune file with a melange.emit stanza:

(melange.emit
 (target output))

Finally, add a source file to build:

$ echo 'Js.log "hello from melange"' > hello.ml

After running dune build @melange or just dune build, Dune produces the following file structure:

.
├── _build
│   └── default
│       └── output
│           └── hello.js
├── dune
├── dune-project
└── hello.ml

The resulting JavaScript can now be run:

$ node _build/default/output/hello.js
hello from melange

Libraries

Adding Melange support to Dune libraries is done as follows:

  • (modes melange): adding melange to modes is required. This field also supports the Ordered Set Language.

  • (melange.runtime_deps <deps>): optionally, define any runtime dependencies using melange.runtime_deps. This field is analog to the runtime_deps field used in melange.emit stanzas.

melange.emit

New in version 3.8.

The melange.emit stanza allows the user to produce JavaScript files from Melange libraries and entry-point modules. It’s similar to the OCaml executable stanza, with the exception that there is no linking step.

(melange.emit
 (target <target>)
 <optional-fields>)

<target> is the name of the folder where resulting JavaScript artifacts will be placed. In particular, the folder will be placed under _build/default/$path-to-directory-of-melange-emit-stanza.

The result of building a melange.emit stanza will match the file structure of the source tree. For example, given the following source tree:

├── dune # (melange.emit (target output) (libraries lib))
├── app.ml
└── lib
    ├── dune # (library (name lib) (modes melange))
    └── helper.ml

The resulting layout in _build/default/output will be as follows:

output
├── app.js
└── lib
    ├── lib.js
    └── helper.js

<optional-fields> are:

  • (alias <alias-name>) specifies an alias to which to attach the targets of the melange.emit stanza.

    • These targets include the .js files generated by the stanza modules, the targets for the .js files of any library that the stanza depends on, and any copy rules for runtime dependencies (see runtime_deps field below).

    • By default, all stanzas will have their targets attached to an alias melange. The behavior of this default alias is exclusive: if an alias is explicitly defined in the stanza, the targets from this stanza will be excluded from the melange alias.

    • The targets of melange.emit are also attached to the Dune default alias (@all), regardless of whether the (alias ...) field is present.

  • (module_systems <module_systems>) specifies the JavaScript import and export format used. The values allowed for <module_systems> are es6 and commonjs.

    • es6 will follow JavaScript modules, and will produce import and export statements.

    • commonjs will follow CommonJS modules, and will produce require calls and export values with module.exports.

    • If no extension is specified, the resulting JavaScript files will use .js. You can specify a different extension with a pair (<module_system> <extension>), e.g. (module_systems (es6 mjs)).

    • Multiple module systems can be used in the same field as long as their extensions are different. For example, (module_systems commonjs (es6 mjs)) will produce one set of JavaScript files using CommonJS and the .js extension, and another using ES6 and the .mjs extension.

  • (modules <modules>) specifies what modules will be built with Melange. By default, if this field is not defined, Dune will use all the .ml/.re files in the same directory as the dune file. This includes module sources present in the file system as well as modules generated by user rules. You can restrict this list by using an explicit (modules <modules>) field. <modules> uses the Ordered Set Language, where elements are module names and don’t need to start with an uppercase letter. For instance, to exclude module Foo, use (modules :standard \ foo).

  • (libraries <library-dependencies>) specifies Melange library dependencies. Melange libraries can only use the simple form, like (libraries foo pkg.bar). Keep in mind the following limitations:

    • The re_export form is not supported.

    • All the libraries included in <library-dependencies> have to support the melange mode (see the section about libraries below).

  • (package <package>) allows the user to define the JavaScript package to which the artifacts produced by the melange.emit stanza will belong.

  • (runtime_deps <paths-to-deps>) specifies dependencies that should be copied to the build folder together with the .js files generated from the sources. These runtime dependencies can include assets like CSS files, images, fonts, external JavaScript files, etc. runtime_deps adhere to the formats in Dependency Specification. For example (runtime_deps ./path/to/file.css (glob_files_rec ./fonts/*)).

  • (emit_stdlib <bool>) allows the user to specify whether the Melange standard library should be included as a dependency of the stanza or not. The default is true. If this option is false, the Melange standard library and runtime JavaScript files won’t be produced in the target directory.

  • (promote <options>) promotes the generated .js files to the source tree. The options are the same as for the rule promote mode. Adding (promote (until-clean)) to a melange.emit stanza will cause Dune to copy the .js files to the source tree and dune clean to delete them.

  • (preprocess <preprocess-spec>) specifies how to preprocess files when needed. The default is no_preprocessing. Additional options are described in the Preprocessing Specification section.

  • (preprocessor_deps (<deps-conf list>)) specifies extra preprocessor dependencies, e.g., if the preprocessor reads a generated file. The dependency specification is described in the Dependency Specification section.

  • (compile_flags <flags>) specifies compilation flags specific to melc, the main Melange executable. <flags> is described in detail in the Ordered Set Language section. It also supports (:include ...) forms. The value for this field can also be taken from env stanzas. It’s therefore recommended to add flags with e.g. (compile_flags :standard <my options>) rather than replace them.

  • (root_module <module>) specifies a root_module that collects all listed dependencies in libraries. See the documentation for root_module in the library stanza.

  • (allow_overlapping_dependencies) is the same as the corresponding field of library.

  • (enabled_if <blang expression>) conditionally disables a melange emit stanza. The JavaScript files associated with the stanza won’t be built. The condition is specified using the Boolean Language.